Quaderni di Dipartimento [serie ordinaria - Anno 2000]


ELENCO DEI QUADERNI DI DIPARTIMENTO - WORKING PAPERS

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ISSN: 2279-9559 (dal n. 1 al n. 157), 2279-9567 (dal n. 158 al n. 363), 2279-9575 (dal n. 364 in poi)

144  Giorgio BARBA NAVARETTI, Enrico SANTARELLI, Marco VIVARELLI
The Role of Subsidies in Promoting Italian Joint Ventures in Least Developed and Transition Economies [dicembre 2000]
Abstract:
  This paper analyses the impact of subsidies for the promotion of Italian joint ventures (JVs) aimed at LDC and transition economies. The empirical analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of 172 JVs interviewed during 1998 by means of a closed-answer qualitative-quantitative questionnaire. The main finding of the study is that, although there is a significant deadweight component in incentive policy, the subsidised firms are significantly more likely to grow. Moreover, the JVs comprising new firms (which need to grow to survive) also have a higher employment performance than average, as do the (labour intensive) JVs motivated by the search for lower labour costs, and the JVs in east European countries.
Citations:   CitEc
 
143  Renato BALDUCCI, Stefano STAFFOLANI
Quota del lavoro e occupazione in presenza di contrattazione efficiente [ottobre 2000]
Keywords:
  Distribuzione funzionale del reddito, contrattazione, disoccupazione, quota del lavoro, sindacato
JEL Classification:
  D33 Microeconomics - Distribution - Factor Income Distribution
  J51 Labor and Demographic Economics - Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
  J64 Labor and Demographic Economics - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
Abstract:
  La riduzione della quota del lavoro sul prodotto, che ha caratterizzato lÆandamento delle economie europee negli anni Æ90, `e stata vista soprattutto come una conseguenza di variazioni nella tecnologia e nella dotazione di capitale per occupato. In questo lavoro, valutiamo il ruolo che la contrattazione tra parti sociali pu`o avere nel determinare la quota del lavoro. I risultati, basati su un modello di contrattazione efficiente, portano a concludere che la quota del lavoro e i livelli occupazionali sono legati positivamente al potere contrattuale dei sindacati. In un contesto che tiene conto della competitivit`a internazionale i tassi di interessi esteri rappresentano dei vincoli alla capacit` a dei sindacati di appropriarsi di parte del surplus. Variazioni nei tassi di interesse esteri hanno effetti rilevanti sulla distribuzione funzionale del reddito. JEL: D33, J51, J64 KEYWORDS: Distribuzione funzionale del reddito, quota del lavoro, disoccupazione, contrattazione, sindacato
Citations:   CitEc
 
142  Alessandro STERLACCHINI
The determinants of export performance: A firmlevel study in Italian Manufacturing [ottobre 2000]
Keywords:
  Export probability and intensity, firm size, innovative activities
JEL Classification:
  L10 Industrial Organization - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - General
  O33 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Technological Change; Research and Development - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
Abstract:
  This paper analyses the main determinants of a firm's probability to export and export intensity and presents the findings of an empirical study carried our for a large sample of Italian firms. Among these determinants, the study considers the firms' size and industry, the geographical location, the working as a subcontractor, and the affiliation with business groups. Moreover, along with R&D intensity, other qualitative indicators of innovation are taken into account. On the basis of Probit and Tobit estimates, it emerges that the determinants of export performance change according to the size of firms. In particular, only for small firms the relationship between size and export performance is positive. The export probability and intensity of SMEs decrease with the share of sales due to subcontracting. Larger firms, instead, benefit more from being affiliated with business groups. Finally, innovative activities are particularly effective in raising the export performance of medium-sized and large firms.
Citations:   CitEc
 
141  Alberto BUCCI, Fabio FIORILLO, Stefano STAFFOLANI
Can Market Power influence Employment, Wage Inequality and Growth? [ottobre 2000]
Keywords:
  efficiency wages, endogenous growth, market power, research and development
JEL Classification:
  D43 Microeconomics - Market Structure and Pricing - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
  D92 Microeconomics - Intertemporal Choice and Growth - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Financing, Investment, and Capacity
  J41 Labor and Demographic Economics - Particular Labor Markets - Labor Contracts
  O3 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Technological Change; Research and Development
Citations:   CitEc
 
140  Riccardo LUCCHETTI
Inconsistency Of Naive GMM Estimation For QR Models With Endogenous Regressors [luglio 2000]
JEL Classification:
  C25 Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
Abstract:
  A naive GMM approach to estimating QR (logit and probit) models with endogenous explanatory variables can lead to inconsistent estimators. This result was previously shown by Dagenais via simulation. In this paper, a special case is presented for which an analytical proof is possible; it turns out that the estimator is indeed inconsistent, but the framework analysed here can be useful for hypothesis testing. Un approccio GMM `naive' per la stima di modelli QR con regressori endogeni porta a stimatori inconsistenti. Questo risultato, ottenuto via simulazione da Dagenais, viene qui provato analiticamente in un caso particolare. Si ha che lo stimatore in effetti inconsitente, ma pu essere di una qualche utilit per la prova di ipotesi.
Citations:   CitEc
 
139  Riccardo MAZZONI
Alcuni vincoli del processo di accumulazione [agosto 2000]
Abstract:
  Punto di avvio della ricerca è stata l'osservazione che a partire dagli anni '70 il tasso di investimento, definito dalla quota degli investimenti sul PIL, dopo un trend crescente che data dagli albori dello sviluppo industriale del Paese, è diminuito assai più rapidamente che negli altri paesi industrializzati. Una evoluzione che si associa bene a quella della produzione. Tra le numerose cause che possono spiegare tale comportamento questo lavoro ha tentato di evidenziare le vie attraverso le quali le variazioni del costo del lavoro, del grado di irrigidimento del vincolo estero e del deficit del bilancio dello Stato hanno influito sulle decisioni di investimento e, attraverso esse, sulle performance di lungo periodo del sistema economico. Debita attenzione è dedicata anche allo studio delle conseguenze che la politica fiscale e quella monetaria possono aver prodotto sul tasso di investimento che si ipotizza dipendere in prevalenza: dal livello dei tassi di interesse reali, dalle attese nei confronti della domanda dalla misura dei profitti e da forme di razionamento del credito. I fattori indicati sopra vengono esaminati separatamente nei tre periodi: 1970-1980; 1980-1992; 1992-1997.
Citations:   CitEc
 
138  Alberto BUCCI, H. Cagri SAGLAM
Growth Maximizing Patent Lifetime [luglio 2000]
Citations:   CitEc
 
137  Alessandro STERLACCHINI
L'accesso alle professioni regolamentate: un' analisi empirica sui laureati degli atenei marchigiani [luglio 2000]
Abstract:
  In questo lavoro vengono analizzati i problemi di inserimento dei laureati nel settore delle professioni regolamentate. Dopo aver esaminato i requisiti per l'accesso alle diverse professioni e le recenti proposte di modifica, vengono presentati i risultati di un'indagine empirica (effettuata tra la fine del 1997 e l'inizio del 1998) sui laureati degli atenei marchigiani che hanno ottenuto il titolo nel 1992 e che, al momento della laurea, erano residenti nelle Marche. Per i corsi di laurea che consentono l'accesso ad una professione regolamentata, vengono esaminati i tassi di aspirazione, abilitazione ed effettivo esercizio della professione. Si passa quindi ad analizzare l'esperienza del praticantato presso studi professionali e i giudizi sulle proposte di modifica dell'attuale regolamentazione, orientate ad una maggiore correttezza delle procedure di accesso e Iiberalizzazione dell'attività professionale. I risultati, in primo luogo, mostrano che vi sono notevoli differenze nei tassi di abilitazione per tipo di professione le quali non possono che essere imputate alla discrezionalità delle commissioni di esame. L'utilità del praticantato dipende dal tempo effettivamente dedicato alla formazione, il quale, insieme al voto di laurea e all'argine sociale dei laureati, influenza la probabilità di superare l'esame di abilitazione. Non è quindi un caso che soltanto gli aspiranti abilitati giudichino tale esperienza in modo molto positivo. Relativamente alle proposte di modifica dell'attuale regolamentazione, gli aspiranti non abilitati soprattutto ma anche gli abilitati sono decisamente favorevoli ad una revisione delle modalità di svolgimento degli esami di stato. Emerge invece un atteggiamento più conservativo nei confronti delle tariffe professionali mentre l'abolizione del divieto di pubblicità viene vista con favore, ma soltanto da coloro che esercitano la professione.
Citations:   CitEc
 
136  Roberto ESPOSTI
Public R&D Design and Technological Spill-Ins. A Dynamic Model [giugno 2000]
Keywords:
  VAR/VEC models, research system design, technological spill-in
JEL Classification:
  O30 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Technological Change; Research and Development - General
  Q16 Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - Agriculture - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
Abstract:
  The paper presents a dynamic model for the analysis of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) strategy. In a context of increasing globalisation, both intersectoral and international technology spill-ins may greatly affect the NARS design, and this paper proposes an analytical framework for its study when major spill-ins are present. These spill-ins are calculated by applying the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC) methodology. A VAR/VEC model is then specified to detect empirically, given the calculated spill-ins, what NARS design prevails in a dynamic framework. The model is estimated for the Italian agriculture data and provides evidence of close dependency on external R&D sources.
Citations:   CitEc
 
135  Luca PAPI, Alberto ZAZZARO
How Does the EU Agenda Influence Economies Outside the EU? The Case of Tunisia [giugno 2000]
Citations:   CitEc
 
134  Alberto BUCCI
On Scale Effects, Market Power and Growth when Human and Technological Capital are Complements [maggio 2000]
Keywords:
  Endogenous Growth, Industrial Organisation and Macroeconoms, Innovation
JEL Classification:
  L16 Industrial Organization - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change; Industrial P
  O31 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Technological Change; Research and Development - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
  O41 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
Abstract:
  We build an expanding product variety endogenous growth model where both human capital and ideas are complements. One peculiarity of the economy under analysis is that in the sectors where both kinds of capital are accumulated no spillover effect does exist. Many insights arise from the model. Firstly, due to the complementarity hypothesis, multiple steady states emerge. Secondly, growth does not depend on the scale of the economy and turns out to be sensitive to the monopoly power enjoyed by local intermediate monopolists. Finally, when skilled labour and ideas are perfect complements, product market competition is unambiguously bad for growth.
Citations:   CitEc
 
133  Antonio G. CALAFATI
  On Industrial Districts [aprile 2000]
Citations:   CitEc
 
132  Antonio G. CALAFATI
Albert O. Hirschman on Economic Evolution [aprile 2000]
Keywords:
  Hirschman, economic evolution, endogenous change, innovation, system theory
JEL Classification:
  B3 History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches - History of Economic Thought: Individuals
  B4 History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches - Economic Methodology
  O1 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Economic Development
  O3 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Technological Change; Research and Development
Abstract:
  In this paper it will be argued that Albert O. HirschmanÆs research work is a remarkable instance of a methodological shift that began in the Fifties, and of which there seems to be scarce awareness nowadays notwithstanding its relevance for some of the issues that are in the agenda of contemporary economics. In his work - so as in the work of other economists of his generation - systems theory was used as a general methodology to frame the study of structural change in the economy. The methodological questions raised by the study of æeconomic evolutionÆ, extensively discussed nowadays, were very much in evidence in economics already in the Fifties in the theory of economic development. Contrary to what it often said, attempts to build a theoretical interpretation of economic change were in fact conducted within this research programme. Indeed, the focus of HirschmanÆs research activity has been on the explanation of the relationship between the evolution of the social system and the economic process, and systems theory has been the methodological perspective he has relied upon in the study of this relationship. He was certainly not alone while walking along this pathway. Yet, more than other contemporary economists, Hirschman addressed, although with some elusiveness, a fundamental issue in the study of economic evolution, and namely the micro-foundation of economic change. Most of his research ought to be properly understood as an attempt to put forward micro-founded (meta-)theory of economic evolution. To discuss the whole corpus of HirschmanÆs research work would be a too demanding task. The aim of this paper is in fact more modest. It intends to call attention to the methodology that Hirschman elaborated to address the issue of explaining æeconomic evolutionÆ û and to interpret it as a response to a class of why-questions that have constantly been prominent in the agenda of economists in the last decades.
Citations:   CitEc
 
131  Antonio G. CALAFATI
How Do Collective Agents Think? [aprile 2000]
Abstract:
  In economics prominence has been given to a peculiar reductionist view according to which æcollective thinkingÆ is the straightforward result of the work of a specific algorithm - the social welfare function - by means of which any set of potential collective decisions may be ranked. The mental process is seen as the product of the work of a software. The question of which kind of hardware can support this software has been traditionally regarded as unimportant. In this paper the attempt is made to put forward a framework to explain public decisions which builds upon the hypothesis that æcollective mindÆ should not be analysed by abstracting from the features of collective brain. Indeed, collective mental processes will be interpreted as æcausedÆ by the structure of the collective brain that sustains them. It is suggested that the analysis of the collective brain ought to be the starting point in the search for a theory of public decisions. By defining collective brain as a æspecialised network of individualsÆ it will emerge that collective thinking is based on an æinstitutional baseÆ which is its fundamental causal factor of public decisions. But addressing the question of the æinstitutional baseÆ of collective thinking requires a new set of concepts and theoretical statements if one wants to give a meaning to the empirical evidence. A further step in the analysis will be the observation that in modern democracies collective brain is usually æpartitionedÆ and the collective mental process segmented. This segmentation has been historically accompanied by a remarkable increase in the specialised production of knowledge functional to collective decision-making. Collective brains become more differentiated as a result of the fact that they incorporate ætechnical unitsÆ devoted to the production of knowledge. A further consequence of having a segmented mental process is the intrinsic æcoevolutionary natureÆ of collective thinking. Although to various degrees, each decisionmaker is (or ought to be) a system which is open in terms of informational flow. If collective decision-makers want to be up to their moral canons they have to use the relevant knowledge that is dispersed in the environment in their decision process. Coevolutionary collective thinking is both an observed phenomenon and a standard of collective behaviour.
Citations:   CitEc
 
130  Riccardo MAZZONI
I fattori di competitività dei settori tradizionali italiani: sintesi di un dibattito [aprile 2000]
Abstract:
  Uno dei tratti caratteristici del modello di specializzazione italiano è dato dal forte orientamento verso produzioni che appartengono ai settori tradizionali. Numerosi e mutevoli nel corso del tempo sono state le fonti dei vantaggi comparati riconosciute come principali per tali produzioni. Un basso costo del lavoro associato a un favorevole tasso di cambio nei primi decenni del dopoguerra. Strumenti di competitività più sofisticati negli anni successivi. Scopo di questo lavoro è di ritornare sui fattori di competitività che più potentemente hanno agito negli ultimi 20 anni con l'obiettivo di riordinarli in un quadro d'assieme, arricchirne la descrizione fattane nel passato alla luce dei risultati di studi più recenti condotti su tali tematiche, acquisire una più chiara percezione delle effettive prospettive che si presentano al Paese sui mercati tradizionali così importanti per il nostro apparato produttivo. Nel testo particolare enfasi è riservata ai temi della dematurità dei settori tradizionali e del ruolo separato giocato dalle imprese, dai sistemi territoriali di piccole imprese e dall' ambiente entro cui questi sono collocati, nel determinare le condizioni di competitività di tali settori.
Citations:   CitEc
 
129  Davide IACOVONI, Alberto ZAZZARO
Legal System Efficiency, Information Production, and Technological Choice: A Banking Model [aprile 2000]
Keywords:
  Judicial enforcement of laws, information production, stochastic debt contracts
JEL Classification:
  G21 Financial Economics - Financial Institutions and Services - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
  K41 Law and Economics - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - Litigation Process
  K42 Law and Economics - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
Abstract:
  Recent empirical studies have shown that the structure of the legal system and the efficiency in law enforcement influence the financial structure of the firm, their ability to gain access to capital markets, and the growth rate of economic systems. This paper uses a simple banking model with ex-ante and ex-post information asymmetries between borrowers and lenders to analyse the effects that the efficiency of the legal system may exert on the credit market. Its main conclusious are: (i) an efficient legal system reduces loan interest rates and, in the majority of the cases, the average amount of defaults on loans; (ii) an improvement in the efficiency of legal institutions improves banks' selection procedures only provided the efficiency of the legal system is already high.
Citations:   CitEc
 
128  Fabio FIORILLO, Stefano STAFFOLANI
To redistribute or not? Unemployment benefit, workfare and citizen's income in a dual labour market [marzo 2000]
JEL Classification:
  J31 Labor and Demographic Economics - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
  J38 Labor and Demographic Economics - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - Public Policy
Citations:   CitEc
 
127  Davide TICCHI
Investment and uncertainty with recursive preferences [gennaio 2000]
Abstract:
  This paper analyses the relationship between uncertainty and investment when firms are risk averse and have a costant return to scale technology. Using recursive preferences, the paper demonstrates that not only the degree of risk aversion is important in determining the sign of the investment uncertainty relationship but that the intertemporal substitution elasticity also plays a crucial role. The model presented suggests the existence of a positive relationship between investment and uncertainty for reasonable values of the parameters. In the second part of the paper we extend the analysis taking into consideration the presence of adjustment costs in the investment process. Except for particular values of the preference parameters, the uncertainty-investment relationship has a not a definite sign anymore.
Citations:   CitEc